南京公司律师:股权代持存在哪些法律风险?
  • 发表时间:2019-01-17
  • 作者:公司法律师许光
  • 来源:南京公司律师
  Shareholding entrust has been a more and more prominent issue.As we all know,there will be an agreement between the beneficiary shareholder and the nominee shareholder.The judicial interpretations of Supreme Court also ruled that such agreement as binding when it does not violate any law,statutes or regulations.This time Nanjing Corporate Lawyer will further discuss what actions to take if a beneficiary shareholder would like to formally register with the competent authority as the real shareholder.
 
  股份代持现在成为一个越来越明显的趋势。我们都知道,一般而言隐名股东和代持人之间会签订一份代持协议,而最高人民法院的司法解释也确认如果该协议没有违反法律法规的强制性规定,就是合法有效的,具有约束力。今天,南京公司律师将会讨论当隐名股东希望在工商机构注册自己的真实股权的时候应该注意哪些问题和采取哪些行动。
 
  As far as I know,according to current legal practice,the beneficiary shareholder can file lawsuit against the nominee shareholder as the latter refuses to transfer the shares to the former as the entrust agreement stipulates.However,according to the Corporate Law,it requires more than half of all the other shareholders of a limited company to agree upon any transfer of shares to a person other than the existing shareholders,register such share alternation with competent authority,or include such beneficiary shareholder into register of shareholders.
 
  根据南京公司律师许光律师(电话微信同号17712855901)的了解,隐名股东可向人民法院提起诉讼,以要求后者根据代持协议的规定向自己移交相应股权。然而,根据公司法的规定,如果需要向公司股东之外的人转让股权,需要经过半数股东同意,这一规定也适用于将股权转让在工商部门登记并将新股东计入股东名册。
 
  Nanjing Corporate Lawyer has reviewed several cases decided by the Supreme Court,those precedents all suggest that there are premises for a beneficiary shareholder to exercise his/her right to the shares of a limited company.
 
  At first,the beneficiary shareholder must have signed an entrust agreement with the nominee shareholder,there exists a legal basis for the beneficiary shareholder to claim the substantial right to the equity.
 
  Secondly,the beneficiary shareholder should have invested the capital into the company substantially.When the beneficiary shareholder made some statement to commit that he/she might make some investment but made no actual contributions,such person is deprived of any right to the equity.
 
  Thirdly,more than half of the other shareholders(not shares)must agree upon the transfer of shares from the nominee shareholder to the beneficiary shareholder,as their mutual agreement shall not be binding for the company and its other shareholders.
 
  南京公司律师研究了最高法院的数个判例,这些判例设定了隐名股东向公司主张股东权利的先决条件。
 
  首先,隐名股东必须与代持人签订代持协议,从而使隐名股东向公司行使股东权利具备法律基础。
 
  其次,隐名股东必须向公司完成实质出资。如果隐名股东只是宣称或者承诺他将会向公司提供出资但却未能实际出资,其不得向公司主张相应的股权。
 
  第三,超过一半的其他股东(而不是股权)必须同意代持人将股权转让给隐名股东,这是由代持协议的相对性决定的,代持协议不得约束公司以及其他股东。
 
  After analyzing and concluding the relevant precedents,Nanjing Corporate Lawyer finds that the court may support the beneficiary shareholder’s rights to the benefits with respect to the shares.Even if the other shareholders can’t reach an agreement to allow the shares of entrust to be transferred officially and such transfer to be registered with authorities,the court may require the nominee shareholder to grant the dividends or other benefits arising out of the shares he/she nominally holds to the beneficiary shareholder.
 
  在分析和总结相关案例后,南京公司律师发现:法院可能会支持将股份相关收益判决给隐名股东。即使其他股东未能就隐名股东受让股权并在工商登记一事达成共识,法院仍可要求名义股东将股利和其他股权相关收益交付给隐名股东。
 
  Nanjing Corporate Lawyer suggests that the beneficiary shareholders may require the other shareholders of the company also sign an agreement with him/her,to make a prior written agreement to allow the relevant shares to be transferred to his/her name and register him/her as the formal shareholder of the company with competent authorities,as he/she may request.
 
  南京公司律师建议,隐名股东可请求公司其他股东事先签订书面协议,允许在他提出请求时将股权转入其名下并协助其在工商部门办理相关登记。
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